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Transplant Surgery


Transplantation is the removal of living, functioning cells, tissues, or organs from the body and then their transfer back into the same body or into a different body.
The most common type of transplantation is a blood transfusion. Blood transfusions are used to treat millions of people each year. More typically, transplantation refers to the transfer of organs (solid organ transplants) or tissues.
Tissues and organs from living donors are preferable because they are usually healthier. Stem cells (from bone marrow or blood) and kidneys are the tissues most often donated by living donors. Usually, a kidney can be safely donated because the body has two kidneys and can function well with only one. Living donors can also donate a part of the liver or a lung or a pancreas. Organs from living donors are usually transplanted within minutes of being removed. In the United States, being paid to donate an organ is illegal, but reimbursement for cells and tissues is allowed.
Some organs, such as the heart, obviously cannot be taken from living donors.
Organs from deceased donors usually come from people who previously agreed to donate organs. In many states, people can indicate their willingness to donate organs on their driver’s license, although family members are also consulted even when donor status is indicated on the license. Permission for donation also may be obtained from the deceased’s closest family member when the deceased’s wishes are unknown. Deceased donors can be otherwise healthy people who have been in a major accident, as well as those who died of a medical disorder that does not affect the organ being donated. Doctors do not take the potential for organ donation into account when deciding whether to recommend withdrawal of life support from people who are terminally ill or who are brain dead.

Types of organ Transplant Surgery

Organ transplantation is one of the most remarkable successes in the history of medicine. This chart shows the various parts of the body that can be transplanted and the laws governing organ transplants.
a) Heart transplant
A healthy heart from a donor who has suffered brain death is used to replace a patient's damaged or diseased heart.
Due to the complexity of this procedure, strict medical criteria is imposed in assessing whether a donor's heart is suitable for transplant, and whether a potential recipient is suitable to receive the transplant.
Deceased donor heart transplants are performed three to six times a year in Singapore, partly due to a scarcity of donors.
b) Lung transplant
One lung or both lungs from a recently deceased donor are used to replace a patient’s diseased lung or lungs.
Because of strict medical criteria for suitability of lung donors, as of end-2009, only nine lung transplants have been performed locally.
c) Liver transplant
A patient's diseased liver is replaced with a healthy liver graft from a donor. Donor livers can be obtained from deceased donors, or a family member may choose to donate a portion of his liver to the patient.
d) Kidney transplant
A kidney for transplant can be taken from a living or dead donor.

Risk Factors

Risk factors include:

  • End-stage heart failure is a disease in which the heart muscle is failing severely in its attempt to pump blood through the body. It means other treatments are no longer working. End-stage heart failure is the final stage of heart failure. Despite its name, a diagnosis of heart failure does not mean the heart is about to stop beating. The term failure means the heart muscle is failing to pump blood normally because it is damaged or very weak, or both.
  • Liver transplant is usually reserved as a treatment option for people who have significant complications due to end-stage chronic liver disease. Liver transplant may also be a treatment option in rare cases of sudden failure of a previously healthy liver.
    The number of people waiting for a liver transplant greatly exceeds the number of available deceased-donor livers.
    Living-donor liver transplant is an alternative to waiting for a deceased-donor liver to become available. Living-donor liver transplant is possible because the human liver regenerates and returns to its normal size shortly after surgical removal of part of the organ.
  • A kidney transplant is a surgical procedure to place a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor into a person whose kidneys no longer function properly.
    The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located on each side of the spine just below the rib cage. Each is about the size of a fist. Their main function is to filter and remove waste, minerals and fluid from the blood by producing urine.
    When your kidneys lose this filtering ability, harmful levels of fluid and waste accumulate in your body, which can raise your blood pressure and result in kidney failure (end-stage kidney disease). End-stage renal disease occurs when the kidneys have lost about 90% of their ability to function normally.|
  • Having all of this subspecialized expertise in a single place, focused on you, means that you're not just getting one opinion — your care is discussed among the team, your test results are available quickly, appointments are scheduled in coordination, and your transplant care team works together to determine what's best for you.
  • A lung transplant is a surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy lung, usually from a deceased donor. A lung transplant is reserved for people who have tried other medications or treatments, but their conditions haven't sufficiently improved.
    Depending on your medical condition, a lung transplant may involve replacing one of your lungs or both of them. In some situations, the lungs may be transplanted along with a donor heart.
    While a lung transplant is a major operation that can involve many complications, it can greatly improve your health and quality of life.
    When faced with a decision about having a lung transplant, know what to expect of the lung transplant process, the surgery itself, potential risks and follow-up care


Procedure include:

  • Organ transplantation - the surgical removal of a healthy organ from one person and its transplantation into another person whose organ has failed or was injured - is often lifesaving and gives the recipient a wonderful new lease on life.
  • But organ transplantation is also a major surgery that carries potential risks and drawbacks, such as the chance of organ rejection. That's precisely why you and your loved ones need to gather as much information as possible on organ transplants, as soon as possible.
  • Organs donated from living donors eliminate the need to place the recipient on the national waiting list. Transplant surgery can be scheduled at a mutually acceptable time rather than performed under emergency conditions. In addition, the recipient can begin taking immunosuppressant medications two days before the transplant surgery to prevent the risk of rejection. Living donor transplants are often more successful than cadaveric donor transplants because there is a better tissue match between the donor and recipient. The living donor's medical expenses are usually covered by the organ recipient's insurance company, but the amount of coverage may vary.

Range of Treatment Cost

Procedure Duration In Hospital Min Cost (INR) Max Cost (INR)
Kidney Transplant for Unrelated Donor and Recipient Donor-10 days in multiple bed; Recepient- 14 days in Single Room 600000₹ 700000₹
Kidney Transplant for Related Donor and Recipient 400000₹ 1000000₹
Bone Marrow Transplant Depend on the type of bone marrow transplant 2400000₹ 3000000₹
Liver Transplant Surgery Depends upon the treatment 3000000₹ 5600000₹
Cochlear Implant 
Unilateral With Digisynic Implant 3 1000000₹ 1400000₹
Bilateral With Digisynic Implant 3 2000000₹ 2500000₹
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