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Opthalmology Treatments


Ophthalmology is the specialty concerned with the medical and surgical care of the eye, eye orbit (socket), optic tract (the visual nerve network), and visual cortex (the part of the brain that process nerve impulses from the eyes).
Ophthalmologists treat a variety of eye disorders from common vision deficiencies to conditions that can lead to partial or complete blindness. Ophthalmologists will often work with other specialists in cases where vision loss is secondary to another medical condition, such as diabetes or HIV.
Eye health services are becoming more and more important as the UK population ages. An ageing population means there are more and more incidences of age-related diseases of the eye, such as age-related macular degeneration. These eye diseases can be successfully treated if caught early, and can be managed effectively with existing treatments and medicines.

Types of Opthalmology Treatments

ophthalmologists treat a wide variety of eye conditions and perform cataract surgery, as well as prescribe glasses and contact lenses. A general ophthalmologist may refer you to another ophthalmologist in certain situations where more specialised care is required.
Refractive surgeons perform vision correction procedures to correct refractive errors using techniques such as laser eye surgery (LASIK, SMILE, ASLA) and lens surgery. Refractive errors include short-sightedness (myopia), long-sightedness (hyperopia), age-related long-sightedness (presbyopia) and astigmatism.
Corneal specialists diagnose and treat diseases of the cornea, which is the clear 'windscreen' at the front of the eye. These conditions include dry eye disease, corneal trauma, keratoconus, Surfer's Eye (pterygium) and Fuch's dystrophy. Corneal cross-linking and corneal transplantation (keratoplasty) are some of the procedures that these specialists may perform.
Glaucoma specialists are experts in treating the various conditions that affect the optic nerve, of which glaucoma is the most common. Managing eye pressure is the only method known to effectively treat glaucoma, and can be achieved by medical, laser and surgical means.
Retinal specialists diagnose and manage diseases affecting the back region of the eye. This includes the retina (the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye), the macula (the part of the retina that is responsible for central vision) and the vitreous (the clear jelly-like fluid that fills the bulk of the eye). Diagnostic tests may include ultrasound, dye techniques (fluorescein angiography) and electrophysiology, while they may perform treatments such as laser therapy, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous), cryotherapy (a freezing treatment) and surgery to repair torn/detached retinas.
Oculoplastic surgeons perform plastic surgery of the structures around the eye – e.g. the eye socket (orbital surgery), around the eyeball (periocular surgery), the tear drainage system (lacrimal surgery) and the eyelid (blepharoplasty).
Paediatric specialists have expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of eye conditions that affect infants and children. Common conditions include eyes that do not align with each other (strabismus), lazy eye (amblyopia), genetic and developmental abnormalities and trauma.
Ocular inflammation specialists are interested in the various inflammatory conditions that affect the eye and are the result of an abnormally functioning immune system (e.g. uveitis and scleritis). These doctors have specific knowledge about therapies that modify the immune system, and often work in conjunction with other medical immunology specialists (e.g. immunologists and rheumatologists).
Neuro-ophthalmologists treat visual problems related to the brain and nervous system. Examples of this include abnormal eye movements, unequal pupil size (anisicoria), double vision and various types of vision loss. Underlying causes may include strokes, brain tumours and thyroid conditions.

Risk Factors

Risk factors include:

  • The management of SCH remains controversial. For most ophthalmologic procedures, outside the field of vitreoretinal surgery, an expulsive intraoperative SCH is an indication for urgent change of the surgical plan. Prompt closure of the surgical incisions followed by temporary increase of the IOP with digital compression on the globe might tamponade the expansion of the hemorrhage. If uveal prolapse has already occurred, urgent repositioning of the tissue into the intraocular space with careful injection of viscoelastic should be attempted. Placement of an anterior chamber infusion has been advocated as one possible intervention. The role of posterior sclerotomies in the acute setting remains debatable.
  • For a retina specialist who notices the SCH during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), increasing the infusion pressure to 60 mm Hg to 80 mm Hg or even higher, based on the patient's blood pressure (BP), should be the first step. Having the anesthesiologist check and potentially address an elevated BP can prevent progression of the SCH postoperatively. Prophylactic antiemetics may help. If the SCH is small and the case non-elective (eg, retinal detachment), the vitrectomy may be completed with caution.
  • The role of delayed surgical management remains controversial. Even though some authors have reported good results with early intervention, the consensus is that the surgical management should be delayed until the blood liquefies, a process that typically takes at least 7 to 14 days.13–15 Use of topical steroids, cycloplegics, ocular antihypertensives, and oral analgesics might help. During subsequent visits, ultrasound is used to assess the size of the SCH and its degree of liquefaction. A decision for urgent surgical management is usually reserved for appositional ("kissing") or massive SCH. Prior to potential surgery, the patient, together with the primary care physician, must optimize the management of systemic risk factors. An honest conversation between the patient and the surgeon is key in order to set realistic expectations.


Procedure include:

  • An ophthalmologist typically works in an office outfitted with equipment for eye exams. More complex imaging or exploratory tests may be conducted in a hospital or medical facility. Athough some eye surgeries can be performed in the doctor's office, others may require an operating room in a hospital.
  • Eye Examination
    An eye exam consists of a series of tests that assess the state of your vision and your ability to focus on and discern objects. The basic test includes: Visual acuity exam, using an eye chart or other tools to evaluate how your vision compares to that standard definition of normal vision (i.e., 20/20 vision)
    Refraction testing, using a retinoscope or auto-refractor, to measure how light bends when it passes through the lens
    Pupil function exam, which evaluates the pupil's shape, size, and reaction tolight (often with a swinging-flashlight test used to assess the optic nerve response)
    Ocular motility testing, which measures the strength of your eyes muscles, typically by asking you to follow the doctor's finger with your eyes
    Visual field testing, which examines your peripheral vision by asking you to count the number of fingers held outside of your central field of vision
    Slit lamp testing, using a table-mounted microscope to view the interior of your eye as a small beam of light is directed through the pupil
  • Treatments
    There is an almost encyclopedic range of drugs (including eye drops, injections, and oral medications) used in ophthalmology. Some are over-the-counter remedies and supplements used to treat dry eye or prevent progressive disorders like macular degeneration. Others require a prescription and/or administration by a medical professional.
    These include expensive antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs used to treat macular degeneration and certain types of eye cancer.
    In addition to medications, an ophthalmologist can prescribe corrective lenses, including bifocal, multifocal, and progressive eyeglasses and contacts.
    Unlike optometrists, ophthalmologists can perform more sophisticated medical procedures and surgeries. Some of the more common include:
    Bionic eye implants, currently available as the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System used for people with severe retinitis pigmentosa
    Botox injections, sometimes used in place of surgery to correct misaligned eyes by temporarily paralyzing orbital muscles
    Cataract surgery, in which a cloudy lens is replaced with an artificial one
    Corneal transplant, in which diseased or scarred corneal tissue is replaced with healthy tissue from an organ donor
    Enucleation and eye prosthesis, the removal of a diseased or damaged eye followed the insertion of an artificial, nonfunctioning eye
    Glaucoma surgery, using lasers or standard surgical tools to increase fluid outflow from the iris or remove a portion of the iris
    Oculoplastic surgery, a subspecialty of ophthalmology that deals with the reconstruction of the eyelid, orbit, tear ducts, and face
    Orbital decompression used to relieve the characteristic eye bulging associated with Grave's disease Refractive surgery, including LASIK surgery, to correct errors of refraction, reducing or eliminating the need for corrective lenses
    Strabismus surgery used to adjust eye muscles to straighten misaligned eyes
    Vitrectomy, a procedure removes the gel-like substance in the eye, called the vitreous humor, to correct vision problems

Range of Treatment Cost

Procedure Duration In Hospital Min Cost (INR) Max Cost (INR)
Cornea Transplant Day care 45540₹ 70000₹
Lasik - standard Day care 28000₹ 50000₹
Lasik - custom Day care 40000₹ 60000₹
Cataract Day care 36000₹ 70000₹
Glaucoma Day Care 35000₹ 66000₹
Cataract + Glaucoma Day Care 50000₹ 70000₹
Squint  Day Care/1 day 35000₹ 75000₹
Retinal Detachment Day care / 1 day 35000₹ 75000₹
Vitrectomy Day care / 1day 40000₹ 80000₹
Vitrectomy + Retinal Detachment Day care/ 1day 45000₹ 75000₹
Ptosis Day Care 40000₹ 70000₹
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